Understanding COBRA: Continuation Coverage After Job Loss

Understanding COBRA Eligibility

COBRA coverage is available to employees and their dependents who lose group health insurance coverage due to qualifying events such as:

  1. Job loss (except for gross misconduct).
  2. Reduction in work hours leading to loss of eligibility for the employer’s health insurance plan.
  3. Divorce or legal separation from the covered employee.
  4. Death of the covered employee.
  5. Medicare eligibility of the covered employee.

Eligible individuals must have been covered under the employer’s group health plan on the day before the qualifying event occurred. Employers with 20 or more employees are typically subject to COBRA regulations, although some states have mini-COBRA laws that may apply to smaller employers.

COBRA Coverage Options

Under COBRA, individuals have the option to continue the same group health insurance coverage they had while employed. This includes medical, dental, and vision coverage, as well as other benefits such as prescription drug coverage. However, COBRA does not extend to certain types of plans, such as health savings accounts (HSAs) or flexible spending accounts (FSAs).

Duration of COBRA Coverage

COBRA coverage typically lasts for a limited period, known as the maximum coverage period. For most qualifying events, including job loss or reduction in work hours, the maximum coverage period is 18 months. However, certain qualifying events, such as disability or a second qualifying event during the initial COBRA coverage period, may extend the maximum coverage period to 29 months. In the case of dependents who lose coverage due to the death of the covered employee or a divorce or legal separation, COBRA coverage may last for up to 36 months.

Costs of COBRA Coverage

While COBRA allows individuals to maintain their group health insurance coverage, it comes at a cost. Under COBRA regulations, individuals may be required to pay the full premium for their health insurance coverage, plus an additional 2% administrative fee. This can result in significantly higher monthly premiums compared to what the individual paid while employed, as employers often subsidize a portion of the premium for active employees.

Alternatives to COBRA Coverage

For many individuals, the cost of COBRA coverage may be prohibitive, especially if they are unemployed or facing financial difficulties. Fortunately, there are alternatives to COBRA coverage that may provide more affordable options for maintaining health insurance coverage:

  1. Marketplace Plans: The Health Insurance Marketplace, established under the Affordable Care Act, offers a range of health insurance plans with varying levels of coverage and costs. Individuals who lose their job and employer-sponsored health insurance coverage may qualify for a special enrollment period to purchase a Marketplace plan.
  2. Medicaid: Individuals with low income may qualify for Medicaid, a joint federal and state program that provides health insurance coverage to eligible individuals and families. Eligibility criteria vary by state, but losing a job and health insurance coverage typically qualifies as a qualifying event for Medicaid enrollment.
  3. Spouse’s Employer-Sponsored Coverage: If a spouse or domestic partner has access to employer-sponsored health insurance coverage, the individual who lost their job may be eligible to be added to their spouse’s plan during the plan’s open enrollment period or as a special enrollment event.
  4. Short-Term Health Insurance: Short-term health insurance plans provide temporary coverage for individuals in between jobs or during other transitional periods. While these plans typically offer less comprehensive coverage than traditional health insurance plans, they may be more affordable for individuals who need temporary coverage.


COBRA continuation coverage serves as a vital lifeline for individuals and their families who face job loss or other qualifying events that result in a loss of health insurance coverage. By allowing eligible individuals to continue their group health insurance coverage for a limited period, COBRA helps to ensure access to necessary medical care during times of transition. However, it’s important for individuals to understand their rights and options under COBRA, as well as alternatives that may provide more affordable coverage. By being informed and proactive, individuals can navigate the complexities of health insurance coverage after job loss with confidence and peace of mind.